This resource offers a strong research foundation for particular instructional methods along with a rich description of application of the research in real classroom settings. It take three fundamental principles of knowing–preconceptions, interrelationships between factual and conceptual knowledge, and metacognition–and applies those principles to particular subject area concepts. Chapters describe a science concept at three levels of schooling–elementary, middle school and high school–and demonstrate how preconceptions can be made evident by teachers and addressed when they prove to be mistaken ideas. The hypothetical lessons offered in the middle chapters represent a synthesis of both qualitative and quantitative science education research integrated with the cognitive science findings detailed in the introductory chapters. The document can be accessed here.